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dernière mise à jour 19/05/2009 13:39:49

Définition : ville d'Angleterre; comté de Yorkshire.


Extrait de la carte Ordnance Survey : Map of Roman Britain.





* Rivet & Smith, Place Names of Roman Britain, p 333 : 

- Itinéraire d'Antonin, Iter I : DERVENTIONE.

- Notitia Dignitatum, XL-16 : DERVENTIONE; variante DERVENCIONE.

- Notitia Dignitatum, XL-31 : "Praefectus numeri supervenientium Petueriensium, DERVENTIONE".

DERIVATION. This name represents British *Deruentiu, based on *daru- *deru-' oak ', with *ent- and *-io-(n) suffixes. For *daru-, see *DARUVEDA. The sense is thus 'oak-river, river in the oakwood'; here, as seems to be often the case with other tree-names and plant-names used in toponymy, the reference may be partly literal but partly also to some sacred site or religious connotation. This was the name of several British rivers, and by transference, of settlements on their banks without further suffixation; and was the name of various rivers not recorded in our ancient sources, since modem Derwent, Darwen, Darent(h), Dart and Welsh Derwinni all dérive from it (see map). In British the name had an -n- stem, and was taken into Latin with the same as an -io, -ionem third-declension name. In all but one of the British records of the name it is in the oblique-ablative form Derventione, or in versions which are to be adjusted to this, and it is likely that in these instances the supposed nominative *Derventio had no real currency; however, Derventio (6) appears to offer us a genuine nominative, for a special reason, and therefore all the names are quoted in this form (which has become traditional). The name, common in Britain, seems not to be found on the Continent, though Derventum > Drevant (Cher, France) has the same base and one of the suffixes.

IDENTIFICATION. The Roman fort at Malton, Yorkshire (SE 7971), probably covering also the adjacent settlement at Norton. That the ND reference is to this place rather than to Papcastle (= Derventio 3) is indicated by the garrison's being derived from Petuaria (q.v.). 

Note. Bede has two mentions of the original name of the river (the Yorkshire Derwent) from which the fort took its designation : iuxta amnem Deruventionem (II, 9) and ultra amnem Deruventionem (Ii, 13). This form is of exceptional interest because it shows that Bede had it from some source in which a slightly different form of the roots was supposed, presumably by British speakers, i.e. *Deru-uent- (*venta as in Bannaventa ? — but this is not known with *-io-sufnx). Merely scribal -vv- for -v- is unlikely here. The name is not found in any of the classical sources known to Bede, and must have reached him — as did other Yorkshire names — from a local written tradition in Latin".


Commentaires JCE : 

"Praefectus numeri supervenientium Petueriensium, DERVENTIONE" : Préfet de l'unité de surveillance petuarienne, (à) Derventio)

Le nom DERVENTIO est tiré de celui de la rivière près de laquelle la station romaine a été bâtie, lui-même issu d'une racine *deru- = chêne, + ent- = suffixe accusatif , et signifiant : La rivière des chênes.

schéma extrait de Rivet & Smith, p. 333. colorisée par JC Even

le n° 3 positionne Malton.



* Eilert Ekwall : English Place-Names

- Maltune, DB; Maaltun, c 1150 SD; Mealton, Vetus Mealton, 1190 P. 

du Vieil-Anglais Middeltun.

JCE : l'auteur ne donne pas la signification, mais compte tenu de la position du lieu, on peut considérer qu'il s'agit du village, ou de la ville, située au milieu du passage qui commande la vallée (de la rivière Derwent) entre les collines.


Forme donnée par Nennius : 


* Eilert EKWALL : Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names.

* ALF RIVET & Colin SMITH : Place-names of Roman Britain. Bastsford Ltd. London. 1979-1982.

* A.D MILLS : Oxford Dictionary of British Place Names. Oxford University Press. 1991-2003

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