Encyclopédie Marikavel-Jean-Claude-EVEN/Encyclopaedia/Enciclopedia/Enzyklopädie/egkuklopaideia

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Dumfries and Galloway





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* forum du site Marikavel : Academia Celtica 

Dernière mise à jour 10/10/2009 13:15:32

Définition : Commune d'Écosse; autrefois comté de Kirkcudbrightshire; aujourd'hui Dumfries et Galloway; sur la rivière Dee / Deva.

Ville des la tribu bretonne des Novantae.


Extrait de la carte Ordnance Survey : Map of Roman Britain.

Glenlochar est encadrée de rouge, dans le sud de l'Écosse, comté actuel de Dumfries et Galloway, sur le rivière Dee / Deva, qui débouche au nord de l'estuaire de la rivière Eden / Ituna.

Histoire; Archéologie



* Rivet & Smith, p 389-390 : 

- Ptolémée, II,3,5 : Loukopibia ( = LOUCOPIBIA), une ville des Novantae; variante : Loukopiabia ( = LOUCOPIABIA)

- Ravenna, 10737 : LUCOTION, variante LUCOCION.

Plusieurs étymologies ont été proposées : * lucot- = souris; *leuco- = blanc, brillante, etc.; *luco- = marécages; *loucos / *locos = lieu de réunion.

Rivet & Smith optent pour une étymologie *leuco = brillant, s'inspirant du fait que l'endroit est situé sur la rivière Dee / DEVA = la brillante.

Müller in editing Ptolemy commented that the second element (meaningless in terms of Celtic roots) could have resulted from a conflation of variants, Loukopia and Loukobia. This is helpful. Ravenna's entry has not been associated before with Ptolemy's, but its place in Ravenna fits in well with this correspondence, and as often noted, most of Ptolemy's north British narnes do figure in Ravenna (since both depended ultimately on the same map-source for this region: see p. 193). The equivalence is suggested also by Dillemann (p. 69). R&C as often took Lucotion literally and provided it with an etymology based on *lucot- 'mouse'; there are indeed names of persons and places based on this (Holder n. 303). One may however suppose that the Cosmographer found a form *Lucovium on his map (with u a more developed stage of earlier eu, ou) and misread v as t; his -on stands as always for -um.

DERIVATION. It has been traditional to interpret Ptolemy's first syllable Lou- as Latin Lu-, but as Jackson points out in général ternis in LHEB 34, the Celtic sound [ou] may be rendered ou in Ptolemy's Greek, though one would expect oou. Since *leuco- is found in other British names and since *louco- is the same element with vowels at a different stage of development (compare Loucetio Marti and see LHEB 306—307, etc.) it seems reasonable to suggest that here we have *leuco- again; see, then, LEUCA. This was Jackson's suggestion in a note to LHEB 307: 'read perhaps Loukobia = *Loucouia < *Leucouia', which we are happy to adopt. Other possibilities such as *luco- 'marsh' (mentioned by Whatmough DAG 512 in discussing the possibility that Lutecia-Paris-  is for *Lucotecia), and *loucos *locos 'lieu de réunion' (RIO, xxv (1973), 203) are less attractive; they take Ptolemy's first syllable at its usual value, but leave the rest unexplained. Pokorny's notion in Vox Romanica, x (1948—49), 229, that the name might properly be *Louk-upia 'WeiBbach', *upia being a word for 'river' with Illyrian connections, seems perverse.

The suffix in our proposed version is
*-ouio (see CANOVIUM), hee apparently a kind of feminine as in Vinovia. It is curious that in the present case we have evidence of both -ia and -ium endings, precisely as for Vinovia— Vinovium.

IDENTIFICATION. Probably the Roman fort at Glenlochar, Kircudbrightshire (NX 7364); since this is on the dee (DEVA 2), the reference would be to a 'shining' reach of the river".



* Ordnance Survey : Map of Roman Britain

* A.L.F RIVET & Colin SMITH : The Place-names of Roman Britain. Batsford Ltd. London. 1979

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